The boundries were established in 1867 due to the provisions of the Medicine Lodge Treaty. This was taken from the Chickasaws and Choctaws in 1866 by the government so they could settle the Comanche and their allies here.
The area consisted of 2,968,893 acres and was surveyed at 4,638 square miles. The Wichita mountains are in good view, and a network of streams is located throughout the prairie. There is plentiful Mesquite, oak, and hackberry trees and several different types of wildlife which included Buffalo, elk, bear, antelope, white-tailed deer, panthers, wolves, jackrabbits, otter, prairie dogs and racoons and many other species.
In the waterways there are numerous types of fish such as trout and bass, and in the grasslands there is plenty of quail and other wild game.
The system was done away with in 1901 due to the federal policy at the time that decided to grant to individuals 160 acre plots so that the surroundings could be opened for settlement. The government pressured the leaders to sell remaining holdings after individual allotments were secured at a total price of $1.25 an acre.
These circumstances were as a result of what became known as the Cherokee Commission who drafted what is known as the Jerome Agreement.
Quanah Parker lobbied Congress and the President to buy what was known as the Big Pasture for $2.50 an acre to bring a better price, and was successful in raising the individual allotments from the first proposed size of 100 acres to 160.