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B.C.
Please Note: Many early dates are approximates.

4485 - Creation of Adam.

2929 - Deluge of Noah.

2928 - Beginnings of settlement in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley; Sumerians are in Babylonia and cuniform writing is in use.

2900 - Menes consolidates whole Nile Valley, establishes Memphis as capital.

2850 - Canaanites settle along the Mediterranean.

2800 - Nimrod builds Accad.

2400-2000 - New line of pharaohs wield the sceptor, move government seat to Thebes. Control reaches into Ethiopia and beyond with a focus on foreign conquest and extended commerce. Irrigation systems, as well as the canal to the Red Sea are constructed.

2037 - Birth of Abram in Ur of the Chaldees.

2000 - The Amorites, nomads from the desert, invade the Fertile Cresent.

1700 - Hammurabi rules old Assyria to beyond Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. After his reign, the highlander Kassites from the Zagros Mountains conquer and take over.

1600 - Babylon raided by Hittites.

1500 - After an estimated 200 years of living near Mt. Ararat, the Hurrians (Horites) establish a mighty Kingdom of Mitanni in Padan.

1452 - Exodus Led by Moses.

1400 - Arameans settle along the Plain of Philistia and further north.

1140-1040 - Era of Judges, followed by Saul ascending to the throne around 1025.

1010-975 - David succeeds the son of Kish.

975-932 - Solomon enthroned, builds Temple at Mt. Zion.

814(?) - Carthage founded.

750-275 - Assyrian, Persian and Greek powers engulf the entire region.

722 - Sargon II takes Samaria and carries the Ten Tribes into captivity.

705 - Sennacherib dominates Ninevah and then invades Judah. His army is destroyed by pestilence.

697-642 - Manasseh on the throne of Judah.

558-546 - Cyrus rules; conquers Lydia, and in 536 permits the Hebrews to return home, laden with their gold as well as his own.

522-486 - Darius I reigns, adds Thrace, Macedonia, and then subdues the Punjab in India in 508. He organized the civil government under satraps, thus separating civil from military authority in each province. He built splendid roads, the most important of which was the 1500 mile long Royal Road from Susa to Sardis in Lydia.

480-479 - Xerxes has unsuccessful engagements at Salamis, Attica and Mycale with Greece and withdrawls.

336-323 - Alexander the Great conquers Asia Minor.

285 - The Scythians invade Bosporus.

275 - Pyrrhus defeated by the Romans at Beneventum; date of Rome's supremacy.

264-146 - Punic Wars: series of three long term battles (23, 17 and 3 years, respectively) between Rome and Carthage where the ancient city-state of North Africa, founded by the Phoenicians near the site of modern Tunis, was eventually defeated.

166-163 - Asmonean dynasty (created as a result of Maccabees' revolt).

64 - Rome begins dividing the area into provinces.

60 - First Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar.

4 - Birth of Christ.



A.D.

29 - Crucifixion of Jesus.

44 - Judea comes firmly under Roman procurators.

305 - Control of the area passes to Byzantium.

570 - Mohammed born in Mecca.

610 - He quickly begins to win converts to the new religion called Islam.

622 - The leader and his followers move to Medina to escape persecution and organize a religious community. The migration markes the beginning of the Islamic era.

630 - He returns to Mecca in triumph.

632 - Death of The Prophet. His father-in-law, Abu Bakr is chosen as the first caliph.

633-644 - Converts sweep out of the deserts and conquer Byzantine, Persian and North African territories.

655-661 - Civil war develops over the succession to the caliphate. After the murder of the son-in-law of Muhammed, Muawiya, a member of the Umayya of Mecca attains the office, despite opposition from Ali's supporters who are known as Shiites.

661 - Damascus becomes his capital.

670-699 - They then conquer parts of Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.

681 - A band of Ali's partisans is masacred by Umayyads. Advocating vengence, the Shiiites develop into a major religious movement in opposition to the Sunni (Orthodox).

711 - Moslems invade Spain.

732 - Muslim expansion into western Europe halted at the batle of Tours in France.

750 - Dissension bred by Umayyad decadence and Shiites' growing strength leads to the overthrow of the dynasty. Abu al Abbas, a descendant of Mohamed's uncle, founds the Abbasid line.

756 - Prince Abdul Rahman establishes an independent polity in Espana.

762 - Abbasids found a capital at Baghdad which acquires fame as an intellectual center of learning and art.

788-800 - Separtist movements begun in Spain spread to North Africa. Local dynasties are established first in Morocco then in Tunisia.

868 - Ahmed ibn Tulun, a former slave turned leader, spearheads a revolt in Mizraim and later extends his dominion to the Land of the Damascenes.

910 - Obaidallah, who claims descent from Mehemet's daughter Fatima, comes to power in Tunisia and founds the Fatimid line.

969 - This group conquers Misr, builds Cairo, makes it the capital.

1070-1080 - Seljuks convert to Islam, infiltrate the empire, defeat the Byzantines, move on to the Lands of Damascus, and south along the coast.

1096-1099 - Crusaders arrive in the region and conquer Jerusalem and build a chain of feudal principalities along the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

1171 - Saladin, a Kurdish army officer deposes the Fatamids, and founds a Sunni dynasty.

1187 - He then defeats the Crusaders near Jerusalem.

1221 - Mongol troops of Genghis Khan overrun eastern regions of the Moslem world.

1250 - The first Mameluke sultan comes to power in Mizraim, and for 250 years, rules there and Syr.

1258-1260 - Mongols capture Baghdad and topple the Abbasid caliphate but are finally halted in Canaan.

1260 - A dispossed heir is installed as a puppet khalafa in Cairo under the Mamelukes.

1300 - Uthman of Osman, an ambitious man after whom the Ottoman or Osmanli Empire is named, begins a series of conquests in western Lydia.

1400 - Attacks by forces of Timur the Lame (Tamerlane) restorer of Genghis Khan's Mongol realm devastates Mesopotamia and Syr.

1453 - Constantinople falls to Islam under attack of the Osmanli sultan Mehmed II.

1492 - Christians conquer Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in Espana.

1516-1517 - Osmanlis invade and hang the last Mameluke sultan, removing the puppet khalafa to Constantinople.

1639 - They continue on, subsequently gaining ground from Persia.

1750 - Mehemet ibn Abdul Wahhab launches a fundamentalist reform campaign.

1798-1801 - Napoleon invades Egypt and is later expelled by the British.

1830-1849 - The French conquers Algeria.

1832-1882 - Mizraim gains semi-independence from Osmanli control.

1861 - European powers force Ottomans to recognize an autonomous Lebanon.

1869 - Completion of the Suez Canal.

1881-1883 - France conquers Tunisia, British occupy the Valley of the Nile.

1898 - Sir Horatio Kitchener leads a charge into the Sudan and supresses the Mahdist movement.

1916-1924 - Hussein ibn Ali of the Hashemites of Mecca leads a revolt against the Turks. He controls until overpowered by the Wahhabis under Abdul Aziz ibn Saud.

1917 - England issues the Balfour Declaration favoring the establishment of a home for the Jews.

1918 - Turkey's defeat in WW I ends Ottoman rule. The realm is dissolved.

1920 - Western powers gives mandates over Syria and Lebanon to France, and grants authority over Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq to the U.K.

1921 - 1932 - Ibn Saud consolidates the north and central provinces into the Kingdom of S. A.

1935-1946 - As mandates end, the countries become republics and Hashemite heirs Feisal and Abdullah are enthoned in Transjordan.

1936 - England recognizes the independence of Egypt.

1938 - Oil in commercial quantities is found in Saudi.

1945 - The Arab League organized.

1948 - The State of Israel is proclaimed after Britian's termination of its declaration. Brief war ensues, is won by the Hebrews.

1951 - Libya gains independence.

1952 - A coup prompts the abdication of King Farouk in Misr.

1954 - Algeria revolts against French rule.

1956 - The Sudan, Tunisia and Morocco win independence. Gamal Abdul Nasser becomes president, then his country is invaded after he nationalizes the Suez Canal; later withdraws under UN Pressure.

1958 - Misr and Syr. form the U.A.R. A revolt overthows the monarchy.

1961 - The Land of Damascus withdraws from the union.

1967 - Ishmaelites attack the Jewish State during a religious holiday. They are quickly defeated in six days time which results in loss of some of their own ground.






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